# Model¶

A model is the single, definitive source of information about your data. It
contains the essential fields and behaviors of the data you’re storing.
Generally, each model maps to a single database table.

A model is a PHP class that subclasses Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model.

## Quick example¶

This example model defines a User, which has a first_name and last_name:

// models/User.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;

class User extends Model
{
public function unboundFields(){
return [
'first_name'=>Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>30]),
'last_name'=>Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>30]),
];
}
}


first_name and last_name are fields of the model and each attribute maps to a database column.

## Model Fields¶

The most important part of a model – and the only required part of a model – is the list of database fields it defines.

Note

The name unboundFields was choosen for the method because at the time of declaring this fields the have not been attached to class in any way.

Model fields are defined on unboundFields method which should return an associative array whose :

• keys are the names of the fields.Be careful not to choose field names that conflict with the models API like clean, save, or delete. The know should be an acceptable php variable name.
• values are instances of one of the subclasses of the Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Field class. see Fields.

All the field subclasses can be accessed from the Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model, via static methods whose name matches that of the subclass. e.g To use the Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Field\CharField subclass from the Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model; use the Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::CharField().

PowerOrm ships with dozens of built in field types, a complete list can be found at model field reference, its uses this models fields to determine things like

• database column type (e.g. INTEGER, VARCHAR).
• how to perform queries e.g. if its a relationship field when to add joins

The above User model would create a database table like this:

CREATE TABLE user (
"id" serial NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
"first_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL,
"last_name" varchar(30) NOT NULL
);


Note

• The name of the table, user, is automatically derived from the name of model but can be overridden. See Table names for more details.
• An id field is added automatically, but this behavior can be overridden. See Automatic primary key fields.
• The CREATE TABLE SQL in this example is formatted using PostgreSQL syntax, but it’s worth noting PowerOrm uses SQL tailored to the database backend specified in your configurations file.

## Automatic primary key fields¶

By default, PowerOrm gives each model the following field:

id =  Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::AutoField(['primaryKey'=>true])


This is an auto-incrementing primary key.

If you would like to specify a custom primary key, just specify primarykey=true on one of your fields. If PowerOrm sees you’ve explicitly set Field->primaryKey, it won’t add the automatic id column.

Each model requires exactly one field to have primaryKey=true (either explicitly declared or automatically added).

## Verbose field names¶

All fields accept a verboseName argument.

If the verbose name isn’t given, PowerOrm will automatically create it using the field’s attribute name, converting underscores to spaces.

In this example, the verbose name is “person’s first name”:

first_name = Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::CharField(['verboseName'=>"person's first name", 'maxLength'=30])


In this example, the verbose name is “first name”:

first_name = Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::CharField(['maxLength'=30])


## Relationships¶

The power of relational databases lies in relating tables to each other. PowerOrm offers ways to define the three most common types of database relationships: many-to-one, many-to-many and one-to-one.

In all the relationships types a recursive relationship can be defined.

### Many-to-one relationships¶

To define a many-to-one relationship, use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::ForeignKey. You use it just like any other Field type: by including it on the unboundFields method of your model.

ForeignKey requires a to argument, which specifies the class to which the model is related.

For example, if a Car model has a Manufacturer – that is, a Manufacturer makes multiple cars but each Car only has one Manufacturer – use the following definitions:

// models/Car.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Car extends Model{
public function unboundFields()
{
return [
'manufacturer' => Model::ForeignKey(['to' => Manufacturer::class])
];
}
}

// models/Manufacturer.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Manufacturer extends Model
{

public function unboundFields(){
return [];
}
}


It’s suggested, but not required, that the name of a ForeignKey field (manufacturer in the example above) be the name of the model, lowercase.You can, of course, call the field whatever you want.

### Many-to-many relationships¶

To define a many-to-many relationship, use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::ManyToManyField. You use it just like any other Field type: by including it on the unboundFields method of your model.

ManyToManyField requires a to argument, which specifies the class to which the model is related.

For example, if a Pizza has multiple Topping objects – that is, a Topping can be on multiple pizzas and each Pizza has multiple toppings – here’s how you’d represent that:

// models/Topping.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Topping extends Model
{

public function unboundFields(){
return [
'name'=> Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>50])
];
}
}

// models/Pizza.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Pizza extends Model{
public function unboundFields()
{
return [
'toppings' => Model::ManyToManyField(['to' => Topping::class])
];
}
}


It’s suggested, but not required, that the name of a ManyToManyField (toppings in the example above) be a plural describing the set of related model objects.

It doesn’t matter which model has the ManyToManyField, but you should only put it in one of the models – not both.

Generally, ManyToManyField instances should go in the object that’s going to be edited on a form. In the above example, toppings is in Pizza (rather than Topping having a pizzas ManyToManyField ) because it’s more natural to think about a pizza having toppings than a topping being on multiple pizzas. The way it’s set up above, the Pizza form would let users select the toppings.

### Extra fields on many-to-many relationships¶

When you’re only dealing with simple many-to-many relationships such as mixing and matching pizzas and toppings, a standard ManyToManyField is all you need. However, sometimes you may need to associate data with the relationship between two models.

For example, consider the case of an application tracking the musical groups which musicians belong to. There is a many-to-many relationship between a person and the groups of which they are a member, so you could use a ManyToManyField to represent this relationship. However, there is a lot of detail about the membership that you might want to collect, such as the date at which the person joined the group.

For these situations, PowerOrm allows you to specify the model that will be used to govern the many-to-many relationship. You can then put extra fields on the intermediate model. The intermediate model is associated with the ManyToManyField using the through argument to point to the model that will act as an intermediary. For our musician example, the code would look something like this:

// models/Pesron.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Person extends Model
{

public function unboundFields(){
return [
'name'=> Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>50])
];
}
}

// models/Group.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Group extends Model{
public function unboundFields()
{
return [
'name'=> Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>50]),
'members' => Model::ManyToManyField(['to' => 'Person', 'through'=>Membership::class])
];
}
}

// models/Membership.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class Membership extends Model{
public function unboundFields()
{
return [
'person' => Model::ForeignKey(['to' => 'Person']),
'group' => Model::ForeignKey(['to' => 'Group']),
'invite_reason'=>Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>65])
];
}
}


### One-to-one relationships¶

To define a one-to-one relationship, use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model::OneToOneField. You use it just like any other Field type: by including it on the unboundFields method of your model.

This is most useful on the primary key of an object when that object “extends” another object in some way.

OneToOneField requires a to argument, which specifies the class to which the model is related.

For example, if you were building a database of “places”, you would build pretty standard stuff such as address, phone number, etc. in the database. Then, if you wanted to build a database of restaurants on top of the places, instead of repeating yourself and replicating those fields in the Restaurant model, you could make Restaurant have a OneToOneField to Place (because a restaurant “is a” place; in fact, to handle this you’d typically use inheritance, which involves an implicit one-to-one relation).

## Meta Settings¶

Give your model metadata by return an array of model meta setting from the method getMetaSettings, like so:

// models/Group.php
use Eddmash\PowerOrm\Model\Model;
class User extends Model
{

public function unboundFields(){
return [
'first_name'=>Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>30]),
'last_name'=>Model::CharField(['maxLength'=>30]),
];
}

public function getMetaSettings(){
return [
'dbTable'=>"local_user",
'verboseName'=>"Local Users",
];
}
}


Model metadata is ‘anything that’s not a field’ such as database table name (db_table) or human-readable . None are required, and overriding the getMetaSettings method is completely optional.

A complete list of all possible Meta options can be found in the model option reference.